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1. auxiliary verb To have (used in compound tenses). It is followed by a participle. Example: Mou marit hast -mi deixat, my husband has left me.

2. transitive verb To have (possession or ownership). Example: J’heh ũn’aut nou, I have a new car.

3. impersonal verb It expresses existence or presence. It is always conjugated in singular with the pronoun se. Example: S’hast moutas cosas qwe façre, there are many things to do.

Etymology: From Latin habere.

~ de 

[ˈawəɾe de]

1. periphrastic verb It expresses an external obligation with respect to the speaker, like “to have to”. It is followed by an infinitive. Example: Tots hawèms de complăre as lleixas, everybody has to obey the laws.



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1. copulative verb To be (something you are).

2. intransitive verb To be (situation, place, time).

3. auxiliary verb To be (passive voice). It is followed by a participle. If present, the agent complement is headed by the preposition pur. Example: As chartas eseiren scriwatas pur ou soudat per sa fama, the letters were written by the soldier to his wife.

4. masculine noun Being.

Etymology: From Latin essere.

~ homã

[ˈesəɾe oˈma]

1. masculine noun Human being, Man (in general).

~ per

[ˈesəɾe peɾ]

1. periphrastic verb It expresses a near future or something about to happen. It is followed by an infinitive. Example: S’eh per pluggăre, it’s about to rain.