illa

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[ˈiʎa]

1. personal pronoun, feminine singular She (subject), her (object, only after a preposition).

Etymology: From ill plus the feminine suffix -a.

2. feminine noun Island, isle.

Etymology: From Latin insula.

ill

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[iʎ]

1. personal pronoun, masculine singular He (subject), him (object, only after a preposition).

Etymology: From Latin ille.

False friends: ill (English) = malhautòs.

se

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[se]

1. personal pronoun, singular It is used in impersonal sentences (weather, existence, etc.) as a formal subject to compensate the lack of it. The corresponding verb is always conjugated in the third person of singular. Examples: se njeixe, it is snowing.

Spelling: Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into s’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces).

Etymology: From Latin se.

[se]

1. feminine noun Thirst.

Etymology: From Latin sitis.

 

ou

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[ou̯]

1. definite article determiner, masculine singular The.

2. personal pronoun, masculine singular Him, it (for accusative or direct object).

Spelling (1-2): Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into oul’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). For masculine plural: ous; for feminine forms, see a (2).

Etymology (1-2): From Latin ille, via Spanish el and Portuguese and Galician o.

3. masculine noun Egg.

Etymology (3): From Latin ovum.

a

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[a]

1. feminine noun The letter a.

2. definite article determiner, feminine singular The.

3. personal pronoun, feminine singular Her, it (for accusative or direct object).

Spelling (2-3): Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into al’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). For feminine plural: as; for masculine forms, see ou (1).

Etymology (2-3): From Latin illa, via Spanish la and Portuguese and Galician a.

4. preposition To (direction). Example: Nos vadèms a Franza, we are going to France.

5. preposition On, by (way of doing something). Example: Vadeirems a pez, we went on foot.

6. preposition To (marker of the indirect object of a sentence). Example: J’heh tendat dou sac a ma mara, I have bought this bag to my mother.

7. preposition Without translation (marker of the direct object of a sentence when it comes before the subject, including relative clauses). Example: Marïa ame Paul = A Paul ame Marïa, Mary loves Paul.

8. preposition On, at (situation). Example: A mensa eh ad a dreta dou llet, the table is on the right side of the bed.

9. preposition To, until (when talking about distance or time, in opposition to de). Example: Jo
virc de nou a cinc, I work from nine to five.

10. preposition At (for times and specific moments). Example: Cat dïe jo llewe-mi ad as seit, I get up every day at seven.

Spelling (4-10): Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into ad.

Etymology (4-10): From Latin ad.

False friends: a (English) = ũ.

-a

[a]

1. derivative suffix Added to a masculine singular noun or adjective, it changes the gender to feminine. In case the noun or adjective finished in the vowel -e, it has to be removed before adding the -a. Example: dret (3), right (masculine), dreta, right (feminine); cjude, boy, cjuda, girl.

Etymology: From Latin -a.

ã

[a]

1. masculine noun Anus.

Etymology: From Latin anus.

[a]

1. derivative suffix Added to a noun, it derives a new noun or a new adjective. It means procedence, relationship, membership, etc. Example: cità (noun), city, citatã (noun), citizen; megg (noun), middle, meggã (adjective), medium-size.

Etymology: From Latin -anus.