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1. preposition Of (possession or ownership). Example: Dou llïur eh de moul’amic, this book belongs to my friend.

2. preposition From (place of origin). Example: Jo sõ de Spanna, I’m from Spain.

3. preposition It expresses the manner something is done. Example: Nos façrèms-ou de da forma, we will do it this way.

4. preposition Of (material). Example: Oul’aneu eh d’aur, the ring is made of gold.

5. preposition At (for certain temporal moments). Example: De noix tots ous gats sen pards, at night all cats are brown.

6. preposition It expresses a quality. Example: T’has ũ cor de ljõ, you are lion-hearted.

7. preposition From (starting point of a period of time, a journey, etc.), synonym of des. Example: De Madrid a Barcelona s’hast pluix de seixcents cilometers, from Madrid to Barcelona there are more than six hundred kilometres.

8. preposition It expresses the use of something, synonym of per (3). Example: Dona-mi as botas de scijăre, pass me the ski boots.

Spelling: Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into d’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). Before the definite article determiner, see dou (3).

Etymology: From Latin de.


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1. preposition Towards, to (direction). Example: Dou train vade defeza ou sud dou lã, this train travels to the south of the country.

2. preposition Around (aproximate time or place)Example: Jo finaré ou virc defeza as seix da tarda, I will finish my work around six o’clock in the evening.

Etymology: From Latin de facies.

False friends: defence (English) = defensa.

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1. preposition With (instrumental). Example: Jo curté ou paper cõn as teixeras, I cut (past) the piece of paper with the scissors.

2. preposition With (comitative). Example: Jo viwe cõ mous pares, I live with my parents.

3. preposition With (mode). Example: Ous ferats doul’azident rispiraben cõ dificilità, the injured people in the accident breathed with difficulty.

4. preposition To (used with verb paraulăre). Example: J’heh paraulat cõ tou ggermã, I have talked to your brother.

Etymology: From Latin cum.


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1. adverb of place or time Near here, nearby. Example: Ou hwern eh circa, winter is coming (=winter is nearly here).

Etymology: From Latin circa.

~ de

[ˈkiɾka de]

1. preposition Near, close to (not far away). Example: Oul’hospitau eh circa da stazõ de train, the hospital is near the train station.

2. preposition Around (approximate). Example: J’heh wannat circa de douz millõns d’euros nou loto, I’ve won around two million euros in the lottery.

Etymology: From Latin circa.


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1. preposition In (situation inside a place). Example: Jo viwe ne Nou Jorc, I lve in New York.

2. preposition In (to express the way something is done). Example: Ill eixé ne peixam ad a strata, he came out to the street in pyjamas.

3. preposition In (a certain period of time, including months, days, seasons). Example: N’otour comenze ou curs, the course begins in October.

4. preposition By (mode of transport). Example: Jo vojaixaré n’airplã, I’m going to fly by airplane.

5. preposition Into (direction to enter a place). Example: Ma mara entré na stanza, my mother came into the room.

6. preposition Used before an adjective, it is equivalent to an adverb ended in -ment. Example: Ne ggenèral (= ggenèralament) jo laic tots ous stilles musìcals, in general I like all music styles.

Spelling: Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into n’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). Before a definite article determiner, see nou (3).

Etymology: From Latin in, with the letters interchanged by metathesis.


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1. feminine noun The letter a.

2. definite article determiner, feminine singular The.

3. personal pronoun, feminine singular Her, it (for accusative or direct object).

Spelling (2-3): Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into al’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). For feminine plural: as; for masculine forms, see ou (1).

Etymology (2-3): From Latin illa, via Spanish la and Portuguese and Galician a.

4. preposition To (direction). Example: Nos vadèms a Franza, we are going to France.

5. preposition On, by (way of doing something). Example: Vadeirems a pez, we went on foot.

6. preposition To (marker of the indirect object of a sentence). Example: J’heh tendat dou sac a ma mara, I have bought this bag to my mother.

7. preposition Without translation (marker of the direct object of a sentence when it comes before the subject, including relative clauses). Example: Marïa ame Paul = A Paul ame Marïa, Mary loves Paul.

8. preposition On, at (situation). Example: A mensa eh ad a dreta dou llet, the table is on the right side of the bed.

9. preposition To, until (when talking about distance or time, in opposition to de). Example: Jo
virc de nou a cinc, I work from nine to five.

10. preposition At (for times and specific moments). Example: Cat dïe jo llewe-mi ad as seit, I get up every day at seven.

Spelling (4-10): Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into ad.

Etymology (4-10): From Latin ad.

False friends: a (English) = ũ.



1. derivative suffix Added to a masculine singular noun or adjective, it changes the gender to feminine. In case the noun or adjective finished in the vowel -e, it has to be removed before adding the -a. Example: dret (3), right (masculine), dreta, right (feminine); cjude, boy, cjuda, girl.

Etymology: From Latin -a.



1. masculine noun Anus.

Etymology: From Latin anus.


1. derivative suffix Added to a noun, it derives a new noun or a new adjective. It means procedence, relationship, membership, etc. Example: cità (noun), city, citatã (noun), citizen; megg (noun), middle, meggã (adjective), medium-size.

Etymology: From Latin -anus.