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1. preposition Until, to, as far as (it marks the end of an action, a final number, a limit of a place or the end of time). Example: Al’aqwa da riwata scalé adast ou teulat da casa.

Etymology: From Latin ad ista.


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1. preposition After (in a sequence of events or a time lapse).

Etymology: From Latin trans.


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1. preposition In front of, in the presence of, before, faced with.

Etymology: From Latin ab ante.



1. derivative prefix Before, ante-.

Etymology: From awant.


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1. possessive determiner, masculine singular His, her, its.

2. possessive pronoun, masculine singular His, hers, its.

Spelling: Before words beginning with a vowel or h-, it turns into soul’, with word ligature (both words are written together without intermediate spaces). For masculine plural: sous; for feminine forms, see sa.

Etymology (1-2): From Latin suus.

3. preposition Under, below. Example: Ous cjudes scondeiren-si sou ou llit, the children hid under the bed.

Etymology (3): From Latin sub.


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1. preposition Between, among (in the middle of two or more things). Example: Ou dizonari eh inter autres llïurs, the dictionary is between other books.

2. preposition Between, among (meaning collaboration). Example: Consegrèms-ou inter tots, we’ll get it between all of us.

Etymology: From Latin inter.


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1. adjective Long.

2. adverb of place Far, far away.

Etymology: From Latin longe.

ad ou ~ de

[ad ou̯ loˈneʃ de]

1. preposition Along (over the length of something), during (a period of time). Example: Ous amorats laicen chaminăre ad ou loneix dou rïu, the lovers like walking along the river.



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1. preposition On, above. Example: Ou llïur eh super a mesa, the book is on the table.

2. preposition About (a topic). Example: Jo volle paraulăre cõ tu super varjes tòpics, I want to talk to you about several topics.

3. preposition Around (approximate). Example: J’heh super ũ millõ d’euros nou banc, I’ve got around a million euros in the bank.

Etymology: From Latin super.


1. derivative prefix Higher place, something really big. Example: nazònal, national, supernazònal, supranational.

2. derivative prefix Located above or covering something. Example: superhaut, overcoat.

Etymology: From Latin supra with influence by super.


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1. preposition By (agent complement in the passive voice). Example: Ou cjude esé trowat pur ou polizist, the child was found by the policeman.

2. preposition Because of, due to (cause). Example: Ou port eh fermat pur a mala vedra, the harbour is closed due to bad weather.

3. preposition For (period of time). Example: J’ausentré-mi dou virc pur douz houras, I’ll be out of my workplace for two hours.

4. preposition For, instead of (interchange). Example: Jo vend oul’autmowïul pur seix mill euros, I sell my car for six thousand euros.

5. preposition Along (a street), through (a place). Example: Jo vad pur a strata, I’m walking along the street.

6. preposition Times, by (multiplications). Example: A stanza mesure cinc meters pur tre e megg, the room is five metres long by three and a half wide.

7. preposition It express the way something is done or achieved. Example: Jo consegé-ou pur ma costanza, I achieved it by being constant.

Etymology: From Latin pro with interference with per.

~ qwe

[puɾ kwe]

1. interrogative and exclamative pronoun Why. It asks for the reason why something has happened. Example: Pur qwe arriwes semper tard?, why do you always arrive late?

2. causal conjunction Because. It answers the question “why?”. Example: Illa donaré una festa pur qwe hogge eh soul’annursari, she’s giving a party because today’s her birthday.

~ tant

[puɾ tant]

1. consecutive conjunction So, therefore. Example: J’heh corrat deix cilometers, pur tant ara jo sõ tirrat, I’ve run ten kilometres, therefore I’m tired now.


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1. preposition To (marker of the indirect object of a sentence). Example: J’heh tendat dou per tu, I have bought this to you.

2. preposition For, to, in order to (purpose). Example: Nos façèms dou per consegre ũ mond meixor, we do this in order to achieve a better world.

3. preposition It expresses the use of something. Example: Das oclellas sen per ou sol, these are sunglasses.

4. preposition In, on (expressions of time). Example: Per ou stïu nos hawarèms ũ bebe, we are expecting a baby in summer.

5. preposition To, towards (spatial destination), until (temporal destination). Example: Dou train parte per Franza, this train travels to France.

Etymology: From Latin per.



1. derivative prefix It is used with an augmentative or intensive meaning.

Etymology: From Latin per.


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1. preposition From (starting point of a period of time, a journey, etc.). Example: Des ca a ma casa s’hast sol cent meters, from here to my house there are only one hundred metres.

Etymology: From Latin de ex.